FERTILIZING UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF GOOD FARMING PRACTICE
Stefan Gorbanov - Higher School “Agricultural College”, Plovdiv
1. Balance of nutritive values and fertility of soils.
- Income part of the balance: receipt of nutritive substances through rainfalls, by connecting the atmosphere nitrogen from the freely living, symbiotic and associated microorganisms, and nitrogen enrichment of soils. Post harvest residues of plants and enrichment of surface horizons at the expense of underground waters. Conversion of a part of potential reserves in active ones.
- Expenditure part of the balance: an export of nutritive substances of plants, an escape of nitrogen in atmosphere due to denitrification agents, a condition of denitrification. Losses of nutritive substances through erosion and washing off the easily soluble compounds in depth of soil profile. Immobilization of forms of nutritive substances accessible to plants.
2. Organic fertilizers as means of maintaining the balance of nutritive substances in agriculture and feeding the plants.
b) Composts of organic wastes.
c) Green fertilizing (sideration)
3. Industrial fertilizers as means of maintaining non-deficit balance in agriculture. Properties and use of the industrial fertilizers.
4. Organization of fertilizing
- Norm of fertilizing
- Dose of fertilizer
- Terms of fertilizing
- Ways of fertilizing
5. Fertilizing - effect on the quality of plant production and ecology.
Fertilizing - effect on the ecology. Soil pollution due to using organic fertilizers, industrial fertilizers, micro-fertilizers, growth regulators, pesticides, industrial emissions and transport.
As a result of the reduced number of animals in our country, the balance of nutrients cannot be maintained only by using organic fertilizers (manure, biological precipitates, composts, green fertilizing, biological (bacterial) fertilizers, etc., and the necessity of applying industrial fertilizers is imposed.