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  Module 3 - Theses on the themes of the first sub-module                                         Content


Georgi Sengalevich - Higher School “Agricultural College” – Plovdiv, Bulgaria

      Pesticides applied to the plant protection practices

      - Characteristics of the plant protection pesticides. Qualification and purposeful applications.
      - Positive and negative features of the pesticides for fighting against pests on crops.
      - Risks of pesticide local and permanent pollution of the environment
      - Toxicity of the pesticides (plant protection preparations) as regards warm-blooded organisms and occurrence of phyto toxicity on plants.
      - Pollution of the plant production with residual amounts of them. Quarantine periods. Risks of application to useful insects, parasites and predatory animals.

      - Possibilities of substitution by biological pesticides and other alternative means of plant protection.

Problems caused by pesticides as pollutants of irrigating and drinking waters.

      - Possibilities of pesticide polluting covered waters (wells, drilling pits, reservoirs) and open (dams, lakes, rivers) ones.
      - Negative effects of the pesticide presence in waters as regards the hydrous biota.
      - Problems concerning the crops irrigated with polluted waters. Toxicity for warm-blooded organisms.
      - What has to be observed during the treatment of crops in order to avoid pesticide polluting open water areas.
      - Alternative means of plant protection without any ecological risk for waters as a given datum of nature.
      Under a proper organization and an ecological approach to separate areas in farms, it is also possible to proceed gradually to a biological (alternative) form of plant protection and agriculture without using agrarian chemicals /a maximum use of natural resources and an application of biological pesticides). This naturally will lead to recovering the affected surroundings and a sustainable use of the arable land and water resources – sources of eternal fertility and normal vital activity of the geo-biota, hydrous-biota, vegetation and warm-blooded organisms.