A SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE VEGETATION BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
Maria Popova - Higher School “Agricultural College”, Plovdiv - Bulgaria
Main aim: Rational use of the biological diversity in the farm.
- Knowledge of useful plants of the flora in Bulgaria and their use;
- Protection of the genetic plant resources in the country.
Biological diversity and protection of biological resources – general characteristic features. Agrarian biological diversity (Biological diversity in agriculture) – a new interpretation of the farm.
1. Plant resources:
1.1. Wild plant varieties of the flora in Bulgaria having valuable economic qualities: food, medical, fodder, decorative, honey-bearing and other ones.
1.1.1.Food: Cultivated briar, cultivated blueberry bush, raspberry bush, blackberry bush, hawthorns, crab-apple trees, wild plum trees, blackthorns, etc.
1.1.2.Medical: About 700 varieties of wild medicinal plants in the flora in Bulgaria. The greatest number of herbs belongs to some families of the flower plants, such as Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Scrophulariaceae, Rosaceae, etc.
1.1.3.Fodder: Plants of the families of Poaceae and Fabaceae – a basic component of the natural meadows and pastures.
1.1.4.Decorative: Plants of the families of Ranunculaceae, Violaceae, Salicaceae, Grassulaceae, Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae, Iridaceae, Amaryllidaceae, etc.
1.1.5.Honey-bearing: A lot of flowers of wild grass varieties, trees and bushes enable obtaining pollen and nectar. The honey produced in Bulgaria is characteristic of high quality.
1.2. Rare and wild plant varieties threatened with extinction in Bulgaria.
2. Cultivated plants.
2.1. Growing of traditional cultures in separate regions;
2.2. Alternative cultures – new ones for the agriculture in Bulgaria.
- Introduction of new plants originated from the nature.
- Introduction of foreign plant varieties for growing in the farms.