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  Module 3 - Theses on the themes of the first sub-module                                         Content


Nikolai Markov - Institute of melioration and mechanization – Sofia, Bulgaria

The trainees acquire knowledge of agrarian and technical requirements of the soil treatments for maintaining the soil fertility under earthed up (spring) cultures.

      The autumn treatment of soil is as a rule a continuation of the basic treatment in autumn.
      The autumn pre-sowing cultivation of soils is commonly aimed at maintaining the moisture available in soil, keeping the surface soil layer free of weeds and achieving optimum soil conditions for sowing and germination. The less depth of sowing is and smaller the seeds are the higher requirements of quality of treatment are.
      As regards the climatic conditions of the country, maintaining the soil moisture in the spring and decreasing its unproductive use through evaporating the soil surface are of utmost importance for sowing the spring cultures.
      The intensity of evaporation decreases by disrupting the capillary movement of soil moisture to the surface through loosening the upper soil layer. It is necessary to know that optimum conditions of sowing and germination are achieved through firm and settled beds under seeds and the presence of friable soil layer above them.
      Pre-sowing treatment meeting all the requirements of agrarian technology is achieved through the combined cultivators of the KCO series, which are newly developed and implemented by our Ministry of Agriculture.
      An alarming trend has been observed in our agriculture lately, that of more widely spreading of perennial root and root-sprout weeds. The most efficient fight is conducted through integrated systems of using agrarian technical and chemical actions. However, if the present financial state of agriculture is reviewed. it is more reasonable to rely mainly on the timely differentiated treatment of soils for fighting against the perennial weeds. In this connection, when the areas are especially weeded with root plants after harvesting the preceding culture, it is obligatory to make a deep tillage. Under these conditions, it is recommended for the plowshares to be equipped with knives. A good effect is obtained when plowshares are used in a layer “floor tillage”. The design of these plowshares enables the soils to be cultivated in two or more levels of depth up to 35-40 cm. Under this treatment, the upper soil layer of most roots and weed seeds is put in the bottom of furrow at a depth of over 30 cm. Conditions of rotting and destroying the roots are thus achieved.