UNIT 1

 

AGRIBUSINESS PROBLEMS

 

A global problem is that with the increase of population the amount of agricultural land decreases. According to some estimation in 1960 a hectare of land fed five people. Nowadays the same piece of land feeds ten people and in 2020, it is estimated that a hectare of land will have to feed 30 people. So improvements in agricultural productivity are necessary to meet that global need for food.

Modern agribusiness will help farmers grow more food and at the same time preserve natural habitants. Growth starts with visions. The vision of each company, involved in agriculture is to produce and deliver better food to a better world through extensive crop solutions. Vision should not be just a philosophy. It should show how farmers grow vegetables. A success will come from focusing on the amount of production, markets and demands.

The challenges and opportunities for developing agribusiness are global, but the solutions are implemented locally. Researches in production and sales are of great importance. Such a research could be the driver of profitable growth now and in the long term. It will help the growers produce safe, high – quality crop, and respond to customer needs in a sustainable way.

 

I.                   ANSWER the QUESTIONS:

 

1.    What estimation was done in 1960?

2.    What can modern agribusiness help farmers do?

3.    Where will success in agribusiness come from?

4.    Why is a research in production and sales of great importance?

 

II.                Open the Brackets:

 

We usually (plant) ………… potatoes. Last year we (plant) ………… tomatoes but we (not get) ………… high crop yields because of the weeds. Weeds reduce crop yields. Most weeds (grow) ………… quickly, and it is difficult to get rid of. Diseases can (kill) ………… the plants, too. Diseases (be caused) ………… by organisms, which use the crop as a “host”. We (increase) ………… crop yields next year if we observe weed and disease control.

 

III.             Fill in the Blank Spaces with the Words Below:

 

which,                  above,                 main,                    root,

anchor,                through,               firmly,

 

The basic parts of a plant are the ………… system, which is below the ground, and the shoot system ………… The root of a plant has two ………… functions. It takes in or absorbs water and minerals from the soil ………… the root hairs, ………… are single cells near the tip of each root. The other important function of the root is to hold or ………… the plant …………. In position in the soil.

 

NEW WORDS:

 

improvement – подобрение                             feed –храня

estimation – определяне, оценка                    piece – парче

habitat – ареал, родина                           vision – поглед

involve – въвличам                                  deliver – доставям

solution – решение, разтвор                  demand - търсене

challenge – предизвиквам                      research – проучвам

opportunity – възможност           implement – осъществявам

profitable -           печеливш                    grower - производител

sustainable – продължителен                 respond – отговарям

  

UNIT 2

 

THE PARTS OF A PLANT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

 

A plant is a living organism. It is made of different parts, which have special functions. If one part of the plant does not function properly, the whole plant will suffer. We can cut flowers off the plant or prune the roots, but the plant will not die. Such damage is only temporary and so the plant will continue to grow.

The basic parts of a plant are the root system, which is below the ground, and the shoot system, above. The root of the plant has two main functions. It takes in, or absorbs, water and minerals from the soil through the root hairs. The other function of the root is to hold, or anchor, the plant firmly in the soil. Some plants such as sugar beet and carrots store food in their roots.

The shoot system consists of the stem, the leaves, flowers and fruit. The functions of the stem are to support the plant and enable water and minerals to pass up from the roots to the leaves and flowers. The main job of the leaves is to make food for the plant. The flower contains the reproductive organs of the plant and the fruit encloses the seeds and protect them from damages while they are developing.

 

I. Answer the Questions

 

1. When will a plant suffer?

2. Which are the basic parts of a plant?

3. Which are the main functions of the root system?

4. Which are the main functions of the shoot system?

 

II. Are the Statements True or False:

 

1.    The whole plant will suffer if one part of the plant does not function properly.

2.    The root system is above the ground, and the shoot system is below the ground.

3.    No plants are able to store food in their roots.

4.    The stem supports the plant and enables water and minerals to pass down from the leaves to the roots.

5.    Both carrots and tomatoes can store food in their roots.

 

III. Write Interrogative and Negative forms of the Sentences:

 

1.    The root anchors the plant firmly in the soil.

2.    Water and minerals are absorbed from the soil through the root hairs.

3.    Farmers should till the soil deeply.

4.    The botanist defined the functions of the shoot system.

 

IV.Fill in the Blank Spaces with the Prepositions Given Below:

 

From          below         through       above

On              of                in                up

 

A plant is a living organism. It is made ………… of different parts. The basic parts ……………a plant are the root system, which is ……..   and the shoot system, ………………. . The root absorbs water and minerals …………..the soil ……………….. the root hairs. Some plants can store food ………………….. their roots. Plants such as clover and alfalfa have special bacteria, which live ………….the roots.

 

New Words:

suffer – страдам                                       prune – кастря

alfalfa - люцерна                                                shoot –филиз

root hairs –коренови власинки               anchor – закотвям

firmly – здраво                                         stem – стебло

leaf – листо                                               damage – повреждам

enable – спомагам                                   till – ора, обработвам

 

UNIT 3

 

THE LIFE CYCLE OF A PLANT

 

The life cycle of an annual plant can be divided into several stages. The first stage is germination. Seeds remain dormant, or in a resting state, if they are kept cooled and dried. When the amount of moisture and the temperature level are right, the seeds germinate and start growing.

Certain conditions are necessary for this to happen. The first condition is that the seeds must be alive. Sometimes seeds are dried at a temperature that is too high. This has two effects: the water content in the seeds is reduced too much, certain proteins are destroyed and the seeds die. Other conditions for germination concern the amount of moisture in the soil. If dry seeds are planted in a dry soil, they will not germinate until it rains. On the other hand, if there is too much water in the soil, the seeds will not germinate either. The reason is because wet soils remain cold for a longer period of time than drier, well-drained soils. Badly drained soils usually lack sufficient oxygen necessary for germination. Dormant seeds require little oxygen, but when they start to germinate they require more

 

I. Answer the Questions:

 

1.    When do seeds remain dormant?

2. When do seeds start germinating?

3. When will seeds die?

4. How does the amount of moisture affect germination?

 

II. Turn into Passive Voice:

 

1.    The fruit encloses the seeds.

2.    The farmers improved the fertility of the soil.

3.    The root hairs absorb water and minerals.

4.    Wind and insects will transfer pollen from flower to flower.

5.    We should remove the damaged seeds before sewing.

6.    Do plants require any minerals?

 

III. Ask Questions:

 

1.Seeds remain dormant in cooled and dried.soils. ( What, Where )

2 Badly drained soils may lack sufficient oxygen.( Which soils, What)

3. The stem pushes its way upward. (What, Whose way )

5.    There was too much water in the soil last year. ( Where, When)

 

New Words:

 

annual – годишен                                      content - съдържание

stage          - стадий                                  destroy – унищожавам

germinate – покълвам                               amount – количество

moisture – влага                                        occur – срещам се

oxygen – кислород                                   sufficient - достатъчен

pollen – прашец                                         require - изисквам      

 

UNIT 4

 

DRAINAGE

 

One meaning of drainage is the natural ability of the soil to allow a downward movement of water. The ease with which water can pass through a soil depends on the kind of soil. The heavier the soil is, the more slowly the water percolates, or passes through it. So light soils such as sand are more permeable than heavy soils such as clay.

When there is too much water in the soil, some of it must be drained off. This is the other meaning of drainage: the removal of excess water from the soil by ditching or tiling. Good drainage makes a soil easier to work and maintains a correct balance of air and water in the soil.

Ditching is one of the most important techniques for draining land. Ditches can be cut at certain intervals between the crops. In this way surface water will be removed. Ditches should be wide and straight, with sloping sides, and they should be regularly cleaned. Another important technique is tile drainage. This will help to draw off surplus water. For very heavy soils mole drainage can be used. This technique is used where water accumulates underground.

  

I. Answer the Questions:

 

1.    What are the meanings of drainage?

2.    What is maintained by drainage?

3.    Which are the most important techniques for draining land?

4.    When can water pass through a soil more easily.

 

II. Open the Brackets. Use Active or Passive Voice:

 

 

1.    The soil (to make) more fertile by regular tilling.

2.    A correct balance of air and water (to maintain) by drainage.

3.    The process of photosynthesis (to release) oxygen into the air.

4.    Carrots can (to store) food in their roots.

5.    The prices of the agricultural products (to increase) last year.

  

III. Fill in the Blank Spaces with the Prepositions Given Below:

 

          With,                              between,             at,

          On,                       by                         for,

 

A correct balance of air and water is maintained ……… drainage. Ditching is one of the most important techniques ……… draining land. Ditches are cut ……… certain intervals between the crops. They should be wide and straight ……… sloping sides. The distance ……… the drains will depend ……… the level of the land, permeability of the soil and the amount of rainfall.

 

New Words:

 

ability – способност                                 percolate – процеждам се

clay - глина                                               permeable – промокаем

ditch – копая ров, канал                          slope – склон, наклон -straight – прав, изправен                             

drainage – отводняване

surplus – излишен                                    mole – дига

tile – керемида                                         excess – излишък

  

UNIT 5

 

IRRIGATION

 

Where and when water is in short supply, irrigation is needed to make up the deficit. We should distinguish between the collection of water and its application. There are two main sources of irrigation water: surface water and ground water. Surface water may be obtained from rivers, lakes, and dams. Ground water is provided by underground water deposits. The water collects behind the dam during the wet season and it is applied in the fields during the dry season. Subterranean water is obtained by digging or drilling a well. The amount of water, which is required for irrigation depends on a number of factors. It depends, firstly, on the type of soil and the deficit in it. It also depends on the type of crop, the stage of growth of the crop and the amount, which it will use at a particular time. The irrigation requirement of a crop is not the same throughout its growing period. Most plants require larger quantities of water during the later stages of growth than the earlier ones. Some plants such as sugar cane needs heavier irrigation for a longer period of time. Others such as grain crops require irrigation during the time ear-heads are forming.

 

 Answer the Questions:

 

1.    Where and when is irrigation needed?

2.    Where can surface water be obtained from?

3.    How can subterranean water be obtained?

4.    What does the amount of water required for irrigation depend on?

  

II. Ask Questions:

 

1.    Water passes more quickly through light soils.( what, how)

2.    Ditches are cut between the crops to remove surface water.   (what, where, why )

3.    Farmers irrigate the land when moisture in the soil is not enough.   (who, what, when)

4.    Fertilizers should be added to the soil in order to encourage plant growth.       (what, where, why)

 

III. Put the Words and Phrases in the Right Places:

 

          ground                                              deposits

          is obtained                                       drilled

          in order to                                         short

 

Where and when water is in …………supply irrigation is needed …………make up for the natural rainfall. There are two main sources of irrigation water: surface water and ………… water. Surface water …………from rivers, lakes and dams. Ground water is provided by underground water ………… .In order to obtain subterranean water a well must be ………… or dug.

  

NEW WORDS:

 

make up for – наваксвам за                      distinguish – различавам

source – източник                                    dam – язовир

subterranean – подпочвен                        dig - копая

drill – браздя                                              require – изисквам

obtain – получавам                                   growth –растеж

ear-head – клас                                         grain – зърно

 

UNIT 6

 

MANURE and FERTILIZERS

 

Plant growth cannot continue if there is not a supply of minerals in the soil. The minerals can be divided into two groups: manure and fertilizers. The former is bulky organic material and the latter are inorganic chemical substances. Manure, or dung, consists of a mixture of litter, solid excreta and urine. It contains 3 most important substances for the plant – nitrogen, phosphate and potash. Manure is added to the soil for several reasons. It improves the condition of the soil. It also keeps up the level of humus in the soil. Finally, it makes up for the plant nutrients, which have been removed by crops or leached by soil erosion.

Fertilizers are usually classified according to the food element, which forms their main constituent. So, they may be grouped as nitrogenous fertilizers, phosphorous fertilizers, potassium fertilizers and so on. Nitrogen encourages rapid vegetative growth and gives plants a healthy green color. Phosphorous stimulates the formation of the plant’s roots, and promotes fruit and seed production. Potassium makes the plant tissues stronger. This helps the plant to withstand mechanical damages such as broken branches and torn leaves. In this way the entry of disease bearing agents is prevented.

All plants need fertilizers, but they should be properly used.

 

I. ANSWER the QUESTIONS:

 

1.    How can minerals be divided?

2.    What does manure consists of?

3.    How are fertilizers classified according to the food element?

4.    Will plants be affected if they are given more fertilizers?

 

II. TURN into PASSIVE VOICE:

 

1.    Do fertilizers improve the condition of soil?

2.    Farmers did not use fertilizers last year and the yields were low.

3.    Adding manure can keep the level of humus in the soil.

4.    Farmers will expect higher crop yields if they use compound fertilizers.

 

III. USE GERUND or INFINITIVE:

 

1.     Broken branches allow bacteria ……………. The plant and destroy it. ( enter )

2.     …………… plant tissues stronger helps a plant …………… mechanical damages. ( make, withstand )

3.     Farmers should …………… fertilizers and manure to the soil. The aim in …………… this is to encourage plant growth. ( add, do )

4.     Heat and wind lead to …………… down rockets into small particles. ( break )

 

NEW WORDS:

 

manure – оборски тор                            bulky – огромен, неудобен

fertilizer – тор                                          inorganic – неорганичен

dung – оборски тор                                substance – вещество

litter - замърсявам, боклук                     excreta –екскременти

maintain – поддържам, храня                 tissue – тъкан

withstand - издържам                             particle - частица

leach – филтрирам                                 constituent – съставна част

 

UNIT 7

 

THE CONTROL of WEEDS

 

In crop production the control of weeds is essential to obtain high yields. This includes the choice of clean seeds as well as careful cultivation, both pre-sowing and post-sowing.

Weeds reduce crop yields on account of the fact that they compete with crops for water, soil nutrients and light. They also make harvesting difficult. Most weeds are aggressive and invasive because they grow very quickly and spread far. So they are difficult to get rid of. One recommending way of eradicating many persistent weeds is first to till up the roots and underground parts of the plant. Then the soil can be cultivated lightly.

The principal reason for cultivating the soil is to kill weeds. Weeds may also be killed by means of chemicals, which have the collective name of herbicides. Weed-killers are of two kinds: selective and non-selective. The former removes certain weeds from certain crops. The latter may be used for removing all vegetation e. g. as “brush killer”. Non-selective weed-killers must be used extremely carefully for the simple reason that they will eradicate all plants on contact. That is why they are usually applied before sowing or before the emergence of the crop itself.

 

I.                   ANSWER the QUESTIONS:

 

1.    What does weed-control include?

2.    How do weeds reduce crop yields?

3.    How can weeds be killed?

4.    What are the basic types of weed-killers and how should they be used?

 

II.                Turn the Sentences into Negative and Interrogative Forms:

 

1.    Weeds reduce crop yields.

2.    Weeds, which grow quickly are difficult to get rid of.

3.    Weed-killers must be used extremely carefully.

4.    Weeds will affect crop production.

5.    Last year farmers applied non-selective weed-killers before sowing.

 

III.             Each Sentence Has 4 Underlined Words or Phrases. Identify the Wrong One:

 

1.    Fertilizers are used primarily in order to enrich the soil and increasing crop yields.

2.    Rainfall is a measure of the quantity of water in the form of either rain or snow, which reach the ground.

3.    It should be understand however, that a foot of snow is not equal to a foot of rainfall.

4.    If the oxygen supply in the atmosphere is not replaced from plants, it will soon be exhausted.

 

NEW WORDS:

 

weed – плевел, плевя                   compete – състезавам се

sow – сея                                       on account of – за сметка на

pre-sowing – преди сеене             invasive – нападателен

post-sowing – след сеене              by means of – посредством

nutrients –хранителни в – ва        persistent – упорит

get rid of – отървавам се от          eradicate – унищожавам

emergence – изникване                exhaust – изчерпвам

measure – измервам                      reach – достигам

 

UNIT 8

 

 

PLANT DISEASES

 

In crop production the control of plant disease is essential to obtain high crop yields.

Plant diseases are caused by organisms, which use the crop plant as a “host”. These are mainly micro - organisms such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. These organisms live in the tissue cells of the plants. They usually kill the “host” tissues and either the whole plant or a part of it is damaged and killed. Micro – organisms are reproduced and spread by minute bodies such as spores. fungi and bacteria. Wind, water, diseased plants, cuttings, animals, men and insects are some of the means whereby disease is disseminated.

It is very difficult to kill the fungi and bacteria, or to make the virus inside the “host” plant inactive. But the evolution of plant varieties, which can resist disease has completely changed the methods of disease control. A number of varieties have been evolved and are now available to farmers. So the control of plant disease has become a matter of prevention. In any case, it is necessary to examine crops frequently for signs of disease.

Diseases, which attack the aerial parts of the crop can be easily controlled. Farmers usually apply spraying or dusting on the plant surfaces. Soil – born diseases are much more difficult to control. One way is to use chemicals, which enter the soil and kill the harmful organisms. Then the soil is allowed to air for a few days before use.

 

I.                   ANSWER the QUESTIONS:

 

1.    What are plant diseases caused by?

2.    How do micro - organisms kill the plants?

3.    How are diseases usually spread?

4.    How can diseases, which attack the aerial parts of the crop be controlled?

5.    How can soil - born diseases be controlled?

 

II.                Are the Statements true or false?

 

1.    By using the plant as “host” bacteria cause plant diseases.

2.    Spraying and dusting on the plant surfaces can kill the soil – born diseases.

3.    Spores, fungi and bacteria reproduce and spread micro – organisms.

4.    It is not necessary to air the soil for a few days after applying some chemicals.

 

III.             Open the Brackets (Use Active or Passive voice):

 

We (have) ………… classes yesterday. We (study ) …………about food. Food is made up of several substances. These substances (include) ………… water, fat, oils, proteins and minerals. Water has a number of functions, It (carry) ………… nutrients to the cells and tissues. This process of transportation (carry) out ………..water. Balance is an essential element of animal feeding. Minerals and vitamins must also (balance) ………….. in order to keep the animals healthy and productive. Next week we (study) ………… about soils.

 

NEW WORDS:

 

frequently – често                                    whereby – чрез, съгласно

minute – малък, дребен                          dust – прах, праша

disseminate – сея, разпръсвам                apply – прилагам

prevent – предотвратявам                      resist – устоявам

evolve – развивам се                              spore – спора

UNIT 9

 

MARKET GARDENING

 

EXERCISE A: Re-ordering paragraphs

 

Write out the following paragraphs in the order, which corresponds to the following headings:

 

1.    Advantages of market gardening

2.    Importance of seed selection

3.    Types of soil for market gardening

4.    Nursery beds

5.    Transplantation

 

a) The aim of transplantation is to give each plant more space to develop its roots and leaves. Planting distances vary from species to species. The aim is to have full crop cover of the ground when plants are mature.

 

b) Market gardening is the cultivation of vegetables for sale at the markets in towns. Vegetables are short-duration crops and all the family labor of the grower can be employed the whole year round. Vegetables can be marketed at a good price. So market gardening usually yields a much higher income than any other type of farming.

 

c) Vegetables, which have small seeds such as tomatoes, peppers, cabbage are planted first in boxes or in special nursery beds to raise the seedlings. When they have grown to a suitable size they are transplanted to prepared nursery beds. The soil should be clean and free from disease organisms.

 

d) The land selected for market gardening should have a loose, friable, free-draining soil, A sandy loam is usually preferred. A stiff hard clay should be avoided.

 

e) Successful vegetable growing depends on a number of factors. One of the most essential requirements is good seed. Seed should have high vitality and good breeding. It should be free from diseases and pests as well.

 

I. Answer the Questions:

 

1.    What are the advantages of the market growing?

2.    What is the importance of seed selection?

3.    What is the aim of transplantation?

4.    How could seedlings be prepared?

 

II. Turn into Passive Voice:

 

1.    Growers should rotate crops every year.

2.    We improved the fertility of the soil last year.

3.    Chemicals may kill weeds and pests.

4.    Sunlight will provide the energy for successful vegetable growing.

 

NEW WORDS:

 

advantage – предимство                         plot – парче земя

nursery – разсадник                                 aim – цел, целя

species – видове                                      employ – наемам на работа

loose - рохкав                                           raise – повдигам

requirement – изискване                           friable - ронлив

breed – развъждам, порода                     loam – глинеста почва

 

UNIT 10

 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF FARM ANIMALS

 

Feeding is an integral part of animal breeding. When an animal eats, the food passes along the digestive tract. This is the tube, which runs from the mouth to the anus, or in the case of poultry, the vent. It is known as the alimentary canal. Into this tube digestive juices, or enzymes are secreted. This enzymes break down the food into a form, which the animals can digest, or absorb into its body through the bloodstream and use. The undigested part is rejected in the form of excrement. Therefore, food protein is broken down into amino acids. These substances are the basic building blocks of body proteins. They are absorbed into the body and used to build new proteins in the animal such as muscle and milk.

Different types of farm animals have different alimentary tracts. Cattle have highly developed stomach systems, which are made up of four parts. The first stomach, or rumen, stores the food. Before going into the second stomach, or reticulum, the food is brought up into the mouth for a second chewing. This process is known as ruminating. Food in the reticulum is attacked by organisms in order to release the nutrients. From here the food passes through the omasum into the fourth stomach.

Non – ruminants such as pigs and poultry have a single or simple stomach. Such stomachs are unsuitable for the activity of organisms. In these animals the caecum is the place where there is most organism activity. Differences in the digestive system of animals are reflected in different feeding practices. Ruminants are fed mainly on grass, hay and straw. Non - ruminants are fed on higher quality proteins such as barley, maize, fish and bone - meal.

 

I. Answer the Questions:

 

1.    What is the digestive tract like?

2.    How do the enzymes, secreted into the digestive tract function?

3.    What is the stomach system of cattle made up of?

4.    What is the stomach system of non – ruminants like?

 

II.Choose One Alternative – a), b), c), or d) – for the Underlined Words:

 

1.    The cow brings up some of the grass from its first stomach for a second chewing.

 

a) ruminates                                     c) regurgitates

b) eats                                              d) swallows

 

2.    When the food gets into the reticulum the organisms start attacking it.

 

a) mouth                                           c) organism

second stomach                                       d) rumen

 

3.    When the cow has filled its first stomach it often lies down to ruminate.

 

a) digestive tract                              c) caecum

b) rumen                                           d) store

 

4.    These substances are the basic building blocks of body proteins.

 

a) different                                                 c) essential

b) mainly                                           d) main

 

NEW WORDS:

barley – ечемик                                                digest – смилам

poultry домашни птици                                   vent –заден отвор

reject – отхвърлям                                           muscle – мускул

chew – дъвча                                                   swallow – гълтам

release – освобождавам                                  ruminate - преживям

caecum – сляпо черво                                     maize - царевица

non-ruminant – непреживно животно            tube –тръба

regurgitate – повръщам                                    bone-meal - костно брашно

digestive tract – храносмилателен тракт

alimentary canal – храносмилателна с-ма