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Salinization - The process of accumulation of salts in soil.

Sedimentation - The action or process of forming or depositing sediment.

Sheet erosion - The removal of a fairly uniform layer of soil from the land surface by runoff water.

Silviculture - Management of forest land for timber.

Soil amendment - Any substance such as lime, sulfur, gypsum, or sawdust use to alter the properties of a soil, generally to make it more productive. Fertilizers, a soil amendments, but the term is used most commonly for materials other than fertilizers.

Soil biota - Organisms that live in the soil.

Soil degradation- Degeneration of the soil through erosion, nutrient depletion, and other degenerative processes.

Soil horizons- The horizontal layers into which many soils are organized.

Soil profile - A section through the soil from the surface to the parent rock that reveals the horizons.

Soil salinization - A process in which salt accumulates in the soil.

Soil water (or soil moisture) - The part of the subsurface water immediately below the surface in the spaces, or interstices of the soil.

Spatial integration - Interaction of land uses or agroecosystem components because of physical proximity as, for example, in strip cropping systems.

Species - A group of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups. Species is the smallest of the commonly used units of classification and the easiest to recognize intuitively.

Surface water - Fresh water found on the Earth’s surface in streams and rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and wetlands. Compare groundwater.

Sustainable development - Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Subsidence - The sinking or settling of land caused by aquifer depletion (as groundwater supplies are removed).

Subsurface water - All water that exists below the surface of the Earth in interconnected openings (“interstices”) of soil or rock, includes soil water and ground water.