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Fallow - The period during which land is left to recover its productivity (reduced by cropping) mainly through accumulation of water, nutrients, attrition of pathogens, or a combination of all three. During this period, the land may be bare or covered by natural or planted vegetation. The term may be applied to the land itself or to the crop growing on it.

Fodder - Dried or cured plant material of crops, such as maize and sorghum, grown and processed for animal feed.

Food chain - The successive series of organisms through which energy flows in an ecosystem. Each organism in the series eats or decomposes the preceding organism in the chain.

Forage - Unharvested plant material available as food for domestic animals. It may be grazed or cut for hey, in which case it is termed feed.

Forest regeneration - The process of a forest regrowing, without human intervention, as a result of both natural seed despersal from adjasent undesturbed forest and stump sprouting.

Forest reserve - An area of forest that is protected by laws against excenssive tree cutting and burning enabling protection of ecosystem functions, environmental cervices, cultural values and biological diversity and providing oportunities for reaserch.

Fundamental niche - The potential ecological niche that an organism could have if there were no competition from other species.