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  Glossary

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E

Ecological divesity
- Biological dicversity that encompasses the variety among ecosystems – forests, grasslans, deserts, lakes, estuaries, and oceans, for examples.

Ecological processes - Processes which play an essential part in maintaining ecosystem integrity. Four fundamental eclogical processes are the cycling of water, the cycling of nutrients, the flow of energy, and biodiversity (as an expression of the process of evolution).

Ecosystem - The complex of an ecological community, together with the nonliving components of the environment, that function together as a stable system and in which exchange of material follows a circular path.

Ecotourism - Environmentally oriented recreational travel.

Efficiency - The amount of output per unit of input. Efficiency can be measured at many different scales and for many different factors. For example, “irrigation efficiency” may refer to several different measures of theoretical, technical, economic, and actual water use, within irrigation districts, on farms, or in fields.

Endemic - Restricted or peculiar to a locality or region.

Environment - All the external conditions, both abiotic and biotic, that affect the organism or group of organisms.

Epiphytes - A small organism that grows on another organism but it is not parasitic on it. Small plants that live attached to the bark of a tree’s branches are epiphytes.

Erosion (soil) - The removal or loss of rock or soil by water, wind, biotic factors or human interference.

Evaporation - The process by which a liquid is changed into a gas. Evaporation that takes place from the seas and oceans is the main source of water on land areas.

Evapotranspiration - Discharge of water from the Earth’s surface to the atmosphere by evaporation from bodies of water, or other surfaces, and by transpiration from plants.

Extension - Agricultural activities that involve dissemination of agricultural material, technologies, and information (for example, varieties, chemical inputs, dates of farm operation, special training) to a rrelatively large number of farmers ot associated agricultural workers or agents.

Extensive agriculture - A method of farming using large areas and minimum inputs to raise livestock or crops.