- The breakdown of matter by bacteria and fungi. It changes the chemical makeup and physical appearance of materials.
- The conversion of forests to land uses that have a tree cover of less than 10%.
- Refers to changes within the biological, physical, and chemical processes of the forests that negatively effect the area or side and lower its productive capacity or potential (for example, soil erosion and lost of valuable or potentially genetic types).
- Production of fresh water by removing salt from sea-water or brackish water through the application of energy, usually oil or other fossil fuels.
- Plant or animals that have evolved either naturally or through artificial selection to forms more useful to people. This characteristics of domestication are frequently absent in wild types of the organism and may constitute a negative genetic load for survival in the wild state.
- See microirrigation.
Dryland agriculture or farming
- Crop production without irrigation in regions where available water is the most limiting factor.